Hair removal using light

Investigations (Anderson et Al) has clearly demonstrated that a flash of
high intensity light penetrated through the epidermis, is absorbed and
assimilated in the hair bulbous region, and acts as inhibitor to the hair
follicle through temporarily temperature rise and agglutination.

The follicle has several parts that interest us.
Dermal papilla – The dermal papilla directs and dictates the embryonic
generation of a hair follicle and it also retains this instructive ability
throughout the life of the hair follicle. It consists of a highly active group
of cells shown to be capable of inducing follicle development from the
epidermis and production of hair fiber (Oliver 1966a, Oliver 1966b,
Oliver 1967).
The bigger the Dermal Papilla is, the more cells it has – the thicker the
hair fiber that the hair follicle produces.

Basement Lamina – a thin layer of cells that separates the Dermal Papilla
form the hair sheath cells. Providing a barrier between the dermis and
epidermis.

Matrix cells – Epidermal derived cells close to the Dermal Papilla. These
cells remain undifferentiated and focus on multiplying and proliferating
to produce more cells. Those cells made in the center of the hair follicle
are destined to become part of the hair fiber and are called Cortex
(cortical) cells.

Cortex Cells – Cells that are made by the matrix cells, aimed to become a
part of the hair fiber.

As these cells multiply, the constant stream of production pushes the cells
upward towards the skin surface. As they move up the hair follicle they
begin to differentiate into particular cell types. The cortex cells change
from a round into a flattened appearance. They are squeezed together into
layers (lamella). If the hair follicle contains melanocyte cells then
melanin pigment is incorporated into the cortex cells. These cortex cells
become keratinized and harden. As they do so it becomes impossible for
the cells to function properly and the cells die. The keratinized cells are
then pushed away from the hair bulb region and upwards as new cells
come in behind. The cortex cells are now part of the dead keratinized
fiber. Which is the hair that we see.

Capillaries – small blood vessels that brings food and oxygen to the hair
follicles and takes away the CO2 and waste of the cells metabolic cycle.

When we give a pulse of light, the light penetrates the epidermis and
absorbs in the cells.

The darker the area the more energy it will absorb. As you can see in the
picture, the darkest area is the area of the matrix cells (the cells that
produce the hair fiber cells). That is because of the melanin, which is
inside these cells.

Another dark area is the Capillaries area – especially the capillaries that
have vain blood in them. Vain blood is darker because it has hemoglobin,
which is not attached to oxygen.

When we give a pulse of light many matrix cells are coagulated and stop
functioning.

Matrix cells that are not coagulated are triggered to activate their calcium
pumps. According to Friedmann (1993), a high intensity light pulse will
cause a vast calcium release from mitochondria into cytoplasm. The
hyperactivity of Ca+2 pumps exhausts the ATP (an energy molecule) pool
of the cell, thereby inhibiting cell metabolism resulting in the production
of less Cortex Cells and therefor – less hair or more feathery hair.

Another effect of the light pulse is the clotting of the vain blood in the
capillaries. The clotting disturbs the blood flow to the hair follicle
meaning less food and oxygen are delivered to the hair follicle, resulting
in a smaller ability to produce hair.

These three effects are the cause of the hair removal. The coagulation is
the main reason but the other two effects contribute to the hair loss as
well.

The Crystal 512 and Record 618delivers enough light energy, in the right wavelength, in
order to cause these effects but avoids from too much energy that might
influence other areas of the skin.

www.active2001.com

Hair removal using light

Hair removal using light

Investigations (Anderson et Al) has clearly demonstrated that a flash of
high intensity light penetrated through the epidermis, is absorbed and
assimilated in the hair bulbous region, and acts as inhibitor to the hair
follicle through temporarily temperature rise and agglutination.

The follicle has several parts that interest us.
Dermal papilla – The dermal papilla directs and dictates the embryonic
generation of a hair follicle and it also retains this instructive ability
throughout the life of the hair follicle. It consists of a highly active group
of cells shown to be capable of inducing follicle development from the
epidermis and production of hair fiber (Oliver 1966a, Oliver 1966b,
Oliver 1967).
The bigger the Dermal Papilla is, the more cells it has – the thicker the
hair fiber that the hair follicle produces.

Basement Lamina – a thin layer of cells that separates the Dermal Papilla
form the hair sheath cells. Providing a barrier between the dermis and
epidermis.

Matrix cells – Epidermal derived cells close to the Dermal Papilla. These
cells remain undifferentiated and focus on multiplying and proliferating
to produce more cells. Those cells made in the center of the hair follicle
are destined to become part of the hair fiber and are called Cortex
(cortical) cells.

Cortex Cells – Cells that are made by the matrix cells, aimed to become a
part of the hair fiber.

As these cells multiply, the constant stream of production pushes the cells
upward towards the skin surface. As they move up the hair follicle they
begin to differentiate into particular cell types. The cortex cells change
from a round into a flattened appearance. They are squeezed together into
layers (lamella). If the hair follicle contains melanocyte cells then
melanin pigment is incorporated into the cortex cells. These cortex cells
become keratinized and harden. As they do so it becomes impossible for
the cells to function properly and the cells die. The keratinized cells are
then pushed away from the hair bulb region and upwards as new cells
come in behind. The cortex cells are now part of the dead keratinized
fiber. Which is the hair that we see.

Capillaries – small blood vessels that brings food and oxygen to the hair
follicles and takes away the CO2 and waste of the cells metabolic cycle.

When we give a pulse of light, the light penetrates the epidermis and
absorbs in the cells.

The darker the area the more energy it will absorb. As you can see in the
picture, the darkest area is the area of the matrix cells (the cells that
produce the hair fiber cells). That is because of the melanin, which is
inside these cells.

Another dark area is the Capillaries area – especially the capillaries that
have vain blood in them. Vain blood is darker because it has hemoglobin,
which is not attached to oxygen.

When we give a pulse of light many matrix cells are coagulated and stop
functioning.

Matrix cells that are not coagulated are triggered to activate their calcium
pumps. According to Friedmann (1993), a high intensity light pulse will
cause a vast calcium release from mitochondria into cytoplasm. The
hyperactivity of Ca+2 pumps exhausts the ATP (an energy molecule) pool
of the cell, thereby inhibiting cell metabolism resulting in the production
of less Cortex Cells and therefor – less hair or more feathery hair.

Another effect of the light pulse is the clotting of the vain blood in the
capillaries. The clotting disturbs the blood flow to the hair follicle
meaning less food and oxygen are delivered to the hair follicle, resulting
in a smaller ability to produce hair.

These three effects are the cause of the hair removal. The coagulation is
the main reason but the other two effects contribute to the hair loss as
well.

The Record 618 delivers enough light energy, in the right wavelength, in
order to cause these effects but avoids from too much energy that might
influence other areas of the skin.

Hair reduction treatment with High Intensity Pulsed Light (HIPL)*

Hair reduction treatment with High Intensity Pulsed Light (HIPL)*
with GEM** technology
Dr. Ezra H. Nuriel – Neutrino
 
Abstract
Active optical systems Ltd encapsulate more than 25 years of experience in the hair removal field. In the year of 2000 the first device based on light energy was introduced to the market. Since then many improvements were devised and installed and today the company manufacturers the Crystal 512 and the Record 618, hair removal machines. The machines are based on Active’s GEM (Geometrical Energy Management) patented technology. The present research is intended to test this technology and its implementation in two major fields: effectiveness of treatments and the potential treatment side effects.
The research was performed on 2992 patients in different ages, genders, skin and hair colors in order to achieve an accurate picture on the entire population. The research was performed over three years, in 73 different locations, and according to our knowledge this research is one of the largest of its kind, made in this field.
The results show the abilities of the HIPLGEM technology in both fields .
 
Introduction
Investigations (Anderson et Al)[4] has clearly demonstrated that a flash of high intensity light penetrates through the epidermis, absorbed and assimilated in the hair bulbous region and acts as an inhibitor to the hair follicle through temporarily temperature rise and agglutination.
The follicle has several parts of interest:
Dermal papilla  – The dermal papilla directs and dictates the embryonic generation of a hair follicle and retains this instructive ability throughout the life of the hair follicle. It consists of a highly active group of cells shown to be capable of inducing follicle development from the epidermis and the production of hair fiber.
The bigger the Dermal Papilla, the more cells it has – the thicker the hair fiber that the hair follicle produces.
Basement Lamina – The Basement Lamina is a thin layer of cells that separates the Dermal Papilla form the hair sheath cells. Providing a barrier between the dermis and the epidermis.
Matrix cells  – The Matrix cells are Epidermal derived cells close to the Dermal Papilla. These cells remain undifferentiated and focus on multiplying and proliferating to produce more cells. Those cells are located in the center of the hair follicle and designated to become part of the hair
fiber. Their name is Cortex (cortical) cells.
Cortex Cells – the Cortex cells are made by the matrix cells, aimed to become a part of the hair
fiber.
As these cells multiply, the constant stream of production pushes the cells upward towards the skin surface. As they move upwards they begin to differentiate into particular cell types. The cortex cells change from a round into a flattened appearance. They are squeezed together into layers (lamella). If the hair follicle contains melanocyte cells the melanin pigment is incorporated into the cortex cells. These cortex cells become keratinized and hardens. As they do so it becomes impossible for the cells to function properly and the cells die. The keratinized cells are then pushed away from the hair bulb region upwards, as the new cells develop underneath. The cortex cells are now part of the dead keratinized fiber. This is the hair we see.
Capillaries – small blood vessels that brings nutrition and oxygen via the blood stream to the hair follicles and takes away the CO2 and the waste produced in the cell’s metabolic cycle.
When we give a pulse of light, the light penetrates the epidermis and absorbed in the cells.
The darker the area the more energy it will absorb. As it can be seen from Fig.1, the darkest area, is the area of the matrix cells (the cells that produce the hair fiber cells), that had melanin inside the cells.
 

               

 
Figure 1: The construction of the hair bulbous
 Another dark area is the Capillaries area – especially the capillaries that have vain blood in them. Vain blood is darker because it has deoxyhemoglobin, which is not attached to oxygen. 
When we give a pulse of light many matrix cells are coagulated and stop functioning .
Matrix cells, which are not coagulated, are triggered to activate their calcium pumps. According
to Friedmann (1993)[19], a high intensity light pulse will cause a vast calcium release from mitochondria into cytoplasm. The hyperactivity of Ca+2 pumps exhausts the ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate – an energy molecule) pool, denies it form the cells, thereby inhibiting cell metabolism resulting in the production of less Cortex Cells and therefor – less hair or more feathery hair and less terminal hair.
Another effect of the HIPLGEM is the clotting of the vain blood in the capillaries. The clotting disturbs the blood supply to the hair follicle meaning less food and oxygen are delivered to the hair follicle, resulting in a smaller ability to produce hair.
These three effects cause hair reduction and removal. The coagulation is the main reason but the other two effects contribute to the hair loss as well.
Active Optical System’s aim is to achieve 80% hair growth reduction -according to the FDA definition.
90 % of hair growth sites are in the region of 3 mm under skin surface, most of them imbedded in the dermis.  With the HIPLGEM technology we focus the energy on the hair grow sites.
In order to have effective hair reduction and removal significant energies must be applied to the skin. Two antagonist factors must be taken in consideration for successful result: each follicle must be damaged, but the surrounding tissue, especially the epidermis must be protected from damage. Using long wavelength (1100 nm), are much more suitable for deep hair reduction because of reduced scattering in the dermis, and greater penetration depth [5]. The use of broadband light spectrum, gives the advantage of “energizing” the hair follicles [7]. This technique is very effective for hair reduction, as it operates on all the types of hair (not white), and supplies the needed energy to diminish it. The melanin can be effectively targeted by the intense light source throughout the visible light spectrum [4].
Hair growth is a cycle with four stages. The best time to target a follicle is when it is at the first hair growth phase – the Anagen phase. In this phase we will find the largest concentration of melanin and blood supply, which means that in this phase we find the biggest color differentiation between the follicle and its surrounding tissues .
Targeting the follicle at this phase provides us with the best conditions to destroy the hair follicle.
If we fail to destroy the follicle at this phase, the follicle will continue the hair growth cycle and eventually return once more to the Anagen stage according to its natural cycle. The duration of each phase changes according to the anatomical location and varies between several weeks to several months.   
When we apply energy to the skin, the principle of Photothermolysis and the thermal relaxation time should be considered [4,5]. The term of thermal relaxation time is used to determine the limitation of the thermal damage when a designated target absorbs the energy of a given wavelength in a specified period of time. With the right combination of wavelength, duration and energy, it is possible to target a hair follicle without causing any injury to the surrounding tissue. Taking in consideration all the factors mentioned above, we found, that if the light source delivers its energy through a large beam (greater area), short duration (concentrated energy), high intensity (better penetration) and low repetition rate (larger time to cool), an increase of penetration and follicle destruction occurs [16, 17, 18].
This enhances the chance of affecting large area of growth centers, and a greater chance of hair follicle destruction. Moreover, in order to protect the epidermal melanin from damage, a water based cooling gel is applied on the skin surface .
In this research we investigated the abilities of the HIPLGEM technology and its implementation in Active’s machines to achieve permanent hair reduction without significant unwanted side effects.
  
Materials and Methods
In order to conduct this research we used two kind of machines: Crystal 512 (commercial-lamp lifetime 100.000 pulses) and Record 618 (industrial-lamp lifetime 200.000 pulses), all other specifications are identical. Both machines practice the HIPLGEM technology .
The machines are approved by governmental CFS and withstand the medical safety standard IEC 60601-1, IEC 601-1-2 and the CSA standard for Canada and the US. The machines use a technology that manages to concentrate the bulk of the energy to a precise geometric plane, positioned on the selected target (hair follicles, pigmentation, vascular lesions, acne, herpes, skin rejuvenation etc .
Both machines have a broadband wavelength from 450nm up to 1100nm. Large spot size 15x50mm, pulse repetition rate is of 3 to 4 Seconds. The maximum energy, which can be delivered, is 22 J/cm2.
Twelve fully automated computerized programs, intended for most skin types and hair colors, designate the fluency of each pulse (J/cm2).
Due to the targeting, no excessive heat “overloads” the adjacent tissue, this makes the treatment efficient and painless.
The research was conducted in Israel, a sunny country whose population has a high diversity of skin colors. The diversity of skin colors allows us to get a representing picture of the world population from which we can implement on the whole world population .
Since Israel is a sunny country many people are tanned. Tanned skin allows us to use less energy since it will absorb energy just like the follicle’s melanin. Due to smaller color differentiation selective photothermolysis is harder to achieve. The meaning is that if the machines perform well in Israel they will perform well and even better in countries with cooler weather. 
The research was conducted on 2992 patients in order to supply the research team with reliable results that can give a good indication on the machine’s performance.
The research was conducted in 73 different clinics for three years in order to check the performance of the machines compared with the FDA definitions of hair removal and hair reduction.
The aim was to check if the machines could reach 80% of permanent hair reduction without
significant side effects.
During the research each patient was treated according to the manufacturer’s guidelines and protocol. All treatments and patients where monitored and treatment specifications and results where collected.
The treatment intervals and energy where adjusted specifically for each patient, considering skin color, treatment area, hair type. The sensitivity of each new patient was checked to determine the optimal computerized program to be used.
In cases, where the site to be treated is covered with dense hair, pre-shaving was done, to prevent energy absorption by the hair on top of the skin and allow clear way to the hair follicle.
Experience and professional judgment were used to determine the ideal treatment parameters for each patient, this was determined by delivering several test pulses at an inconspicuous site, with equivalent pigmentation, starting at low energy fluency and slowly increasing the energy fluency. Undesirable effects, such as pain, itching, redness, transient erythema, edema, whitening and blistering were to be avoided. Only after the program to be used, is defined for each new patient, the actual treatment at the pre determined sites begin.
 
Results
As mentioned before, 2992 patients were treated with the machines. Each patient was treated with a preset computerized program, appropriate for his skin color, type of hair, the treated area, the hair color, the patient sensitivity etc.
The treatments were preformed on a variety of the body locations except the eyes, the nipples and other sensitive location according to the patient sensitivity .
The fluency used was designated according to many factors, but the main factors taken in consideration were the skin color and the hair color.
The patients received a total of 27763 treatments with the average of 9.3 treatment for each patient .
We can clearly see from Fig.2 that 77.17% (2309 patients – see Fig.3) of the treated patients reached at least 80% of permanent hair reduction. These patients received more than 10 treatments per patient.
9.19% (275 – see Fig.3) patients reached at least 70% of permanent hair reduction – see Fig.2.
Only twenty one patients (see Fig.4) developed mild side effects (0.702% – see Fig.5) which is completely negligible, 16 patients had mild erythema, 3 patients had mild swelling with extremely mild edema, 2 patients felt itching, all the symptoms disappeared within 24 – 48 hours post treatment.
All results were evaluated after completing the treatment session. The first two treatments were done two weeks apart from each other. Each time the treatment was evaluated. The treatments continued with intervals according to the patient’s hair growth cycle timing – until the patient
was satisfied according to the promised expectations.

Source: article

Hair removal using light

Investigations (Anderson et Al) has clearly demonstrated that a flash of
high intensity light penetrated through the epidermis, is absorbed and
assimilated in the hair bulbous region, and acts as inhibitor to the hair
follicle through temporarily temperature rise and agglutination.

The follicle has several parts that interest us.
Dermal papilla – The dermal papilla directs and dictates the embryonic
generation of a hair follicle and it also retains this instructive ability
throughout the life of the hair follicle. It consists of a highly active group
of cells shown to be capable of inducing follicle development from the
epidermis and production of hair fiber (Oliver 1966a, Oliver 1966b,
Oliver 1967).
The bigger the Dermal Papilla is, the more cells it has – the thicker the
hair fiber that the hair follicle produces.

Basement Lamina – a thin layer of cells that separates the Dermal Papilla
form the hair sheath cells. Providing a barrier between the dermis and
epidermis.

Matrix cells – Epidermal derived cells close to the Dermal Papilla. These
cells remain undifferentiated and focus on multiplying and proliferating
to produce more cells. Those cells made in the center of the hair follicle
are destined to become part of the hair fiber and are called Cortex
(cortical) cells.

Cortex Cells – Cells that are made by the matrix cells, aimed to become a
part of the hair fiber.

As these cells multiply, the constant stream of production pushes the cells
upward towards the skin surface. As they move up the hair follicle they
begin to differentiate into particular cell types. The cortex cells change
from a round into a flattened appearance. They are squeezed together into
layers (lamella). If the hair follicle contains melanocyte cells then
melanin pigment is incorporated into the cortex cells. These cortex cells
become keratinized and harden. As they do so it becomes impossible for
the cells to function properly and the cells die. The keratinized cells are
then pushed away from the hair bulb region and upwards as new cells
come in behind. The cortex cells are now part of the dead keratinized
fiber. Which is the hair that we see.

Capillaries – small blood vessels that brings food and oxygen to the hair
follicles and takes away the CO2 and waste of the cells metabolic cycle.

When we give a pulse of light, the light penetrates the epidermis and
absorbs in the cells.

The darker the area the more energy it will absorb. As you can see in the
picture, the darkest area is the area of the matrix cells (the cells that
produce the hair fiber cells). That is because of the melanin, which is
inside these cells.

 

 

Another dark area is the Capillaries area – especially the capillaries that
have vain blood in them. Vain blood is darker because it has hemoglobin,
which is not attached to oxygen.

When we give a pulse of light many matrix cells are coagulated and stop
functioning.

Matrix cells that are not coagulated are triggered to activate their calcium
pumps. According to Friedmann (1993), a high intensity light pulse will
cause a vast calcium release from mitochondria into cytoplasm. The
hyperactivity of Ca+2 pumps exhausts the ATP (an energy molecule) pool
of the cell, thereby inhibiting cell metabolism resulting in the production
of less Cortex Cells and therefor – less hair or more feathery hair.

Another effect of the light pulse is the clotting of the vain blood in the
capillaries. The clotting disturbs the blood flow to the hair follicle
meaning less food and oxygen are delivered to the hair follicle, resulting
in a smaller ability to produce hair.

These three effects are the cause of the hair removal. The coagulation is
the main reason but the other two effects contribute to the hair loss as
well.

The Crystal 512 and Record 618delivers enough light energy, in the right wavelength, in
order to cause these effects but avoids from too much energy that might
influence other areas of the skin.

 

 www.active2001.com

Vascular treatment using light

There are several types of capillaries. The light pulse treats surface “spider” like capillaries, which are small purple or red veins that stretches like a web near the surface of the skin and or typically discolored clusters.

The capillaries get their color due to the existence of clotted RBC (red blood cells).

These capillaries are very narrow. Sometimes blood cells are “stuck” in these capillaries because they are very narrow. Other RBC that comes into that capillary gets stuck behind the first one and form a layer of clotted blood which gives the capillary it’s color.

The capillaries are seen when they are near the surface of the skin or when the skin becomes thin due to loss of the collagen layer.

When we treat the capillaries we have two levels of treatment:

1. We break the layer of clotted blood and open the capillary again, resulting in free blood flow throw the capillary and the disappearance of the purple color.

2. We treat the collagen layer, stimulating it to produce more collagen resulting in wider skin and concealed veins.

The Crystal 512 and Record 618 broad-spectrum wavelengths are absorbed in the hemoglobin of the clotted blood. Clotted RBC are dead RBC. The energy shakes the structure of the RBC layer. It gives the molecules of the layer enough energy to start moving and breaks the connections between them.

When there are single molecules they can pass throw the vein and dissolve in the body. After several treatments the entire layer moves away from the vein and the purple color is gone.

The other part of the treatment is to stimulate the collagen layer to produce more collagen. Resulting in skin rejuvenation and concealing the vein in the new thicker skin.

www.active2001.com

Skin rejuvenation using light

According to findings by Friedmann and co-workers (1993), low doses of light intensify the formation of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient in mitochondria.

The process happens upon absorption of mitochondrial chromophores such as cytochromes, which are followed by calcium release from mitochondria into cytoplasm by a calcium/hydrogen antiport system and subsequently triggers mitosis and cell proliferation.

Low light energy inserted into cells proliferates and stimulates collagen production and induces collagen and elastic tissue synthesis.

Lubart and colleagues (1993) investigated the effect of light intensities on mammalian cells, they found that the induction of fibroblast proliferation at a constant dose depends on the applied intensity in a non linear manner. Moreover, they demonstrated distinct combinations of dose and intensity at which the induction of cell proliferation was maximal in a wavelength dependent manner. Van Breughel (1992) irradiated fibroblast cultures at a constant dose varying intensities and exposure time. Results show that the proliferation and collagen production could be only stimulated with medium intensities and exposure times.

The Crystal 512 and Record 618 uses specific dose, intensity and wavelengths that enable it to stimulate the cells to produce more collagen and thus rejuvenating the skin.

Acne treatments

There are five different kinds of Acne:

1. Acne vulgaris: it is a clogging of the hair follicles that leads to unsightly, and sometime painful, skin lesions and pimples.

2. Acne conglobata: It usually affects males, it covers the back, chest, and buttocks with pustules and nodules, which often connect under the skin, which might cause a severe bacterial infection, as well as extensive scarring.

3. Acne cosmestica: It is triggered by topical make up. Characterized by small pink bumps.

4. Acne medicamentosa: Caused by sensitivity to drugs and medicines.

5. Acne rosasecea: It is rather an inflammation of the face, neck or chest.

Photo therapy, is most effective in types 1, 2 & 5, in those types a bacterial action is present especially P. acnes which tend to produce endrogenous porphyrins (mostly coproporphyrin III) as a part of its normal metabolism. High intensity broad spectrum light is absorbed in the photo excitation process and releases a sing-let oxygen, who proves to be fatal to the bacteria, and effectively clear inflammation in a fraction of time it takes for standard topical or oral treatments to do the same. This reaction is confined to the bacteria and has no effect on surrounding tissue.

The Acne starts when the opening of the hair follicle is blocked. The bacteria that leave inside the hair follicle (P. Acne) starts to multiply rapidly and the bodies immune system tries to fight the bacteria – starting an inflammation. And the Acne appears. As long as the bacterial activity continues the inflammation continues and the Acne flourish.

The intensive light releases an oxygenator that eliminates the bacteria, thus ending the inflammation and the Acne.

www.active2001.com